What the research says
There is currently little research on the extent and impact on cyber racism in Australia. However, current Australian research in the area of cyber bullying, the number of complaints of internet-based racism made nationally, and studies conducted overseas provide a strong indication of the nature and extent of cyber racism in Australia.
The Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study CHPRC, conducted by Edith Cowan University May 2009 found that:
- Cyber bullying was defined by young people as cruel covert bullying used primarily by young people to harm others using technology such as: social networking sites, other chat-rooms, mobile phones, websites and web-cameras.
- 7-10% of students reported they were bullied by means of technology through the school term.
- Slightly higher rates of cyber bullying were found among secondary students and students from non-government schools.
- Differences were found in each age group regarding the mode of technology most prevalent for cyber bullying in and out of school. More internet-based bullying through social networking sites was reported than through mobile phones, especially as students get older.
- Cyber bullying appears to be related to age (or access to technology), with older students more likely to engage in cyber bullying than younger students.
- Students reported that home cyber bullying is likely to be higher among older students especially if parents don’t have the knowledge and skills to help their child.
- Cyber bullying differences were found in each year group (Year 4 to 9) regarding the mode of technology, with nasty messages more likely to be sent via the internet (most often through social networking sites) than via mobile phones, more especially as students get older.
Source: Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study CHPRC, Edith Cowan University May 2009
In Australia, the following descriptors were used to demonstrate how students exposed to cyber bullying were made to feel:
Source: Behind the Scenes: Insights into the Human Dimensions of Covert Bullying. Hawke Research Institute for Sustainable Societies –
University of South Australia Centre for the Analysis of Educational Futures – Flinders University, SA December 2008.
Statistics from the Australian Human Rights Commission 2015-16
|Racial Discrimination Act||Total||Percentage (%)|
|Rights to equality before the law-||–||–|
|Access to places and facilities||3||1|
|Land, housing, other accommodation||12||2|
|Provision of goods and services||91||18|
|Right to join trade unions||–||–|
|Incitement to unlawful acts||2||–|
|Other – section 9||205||41|
|Total*An area is recorded for each ground, so one complaint may have multiple and different areas.||503||100|
* One complaint may relate to more than one area.
|Racial Discrimination Act||Total||Percentage (%)|
|Media – press/TV/radio||5||7|
|Disputes between neighbours||3||4|
|Internet – email/webpage/chat room||6||8|
|Provision of goods and services||22||29|
|Total*One sub-area is recorded for each racial hatred complaint received.||77||100|
* One sub-area is recorded for each racial hatred complaint received. Source: Annual Report, Australian Human Rights Commission 2008-09.
According to the Australian Human Rights Commission, complaints of internet-based racism and racial vilification have been growing in recent years (18% in 2008/09). These figures only include complaints finalised by the Commission. It is expected that the majority of online racist vilification is either not reported, or is reported directly to the software provider.
Research undertaken in mid western United States shows that online race discrimination is frequent. Surveys show that at least 67% of adolescents have experienced racial discrimination online at least once. 34 % of participants who responded said the discrimination occurred in more than one location, the most common being via text message and social networking sites. This study also showed that online racial discrimination was related to increased levels of anxiety and depression.
Source: Brendesha M. Tynes, Ph.D.a,b, Michael T. Giang, M.S.c, David R. Williams, Ph.D, M.P.Hd, and Geneene N. Thompson, B.A. (2008), ‘Online Racial Discrimination and Psychological Adjustment Among Adolescents’, Journal of Adolescent Health 43 (2008) 565-569
- Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study [PDF] , CHPRC, Edith Cowan University – May 2009.
- Behind the Scenes: Insight into the Human Dimension of Covert Bullying [PDF] , Hawke Research Institute for Sustainable Societies – University of South Australia, Centre for the Analysis of Educational Futures – Flinders University, SA December 2008.
- Brendesha M. Tynes, Ph.D.a,b Michael T. Giang, M.S.c, David R. Williams, Ph.D, M.P.Hd, and Geneene N. Thompson, B.A. (2008), ‘Online Racial Discrimination and Psychological Adjustment Among Adolescents’, Journal of Adolescent Health 43 (2008) 565-569
- Gaine, Chris (2000) ‘Stereotypes in cyberspace: writing an anti-racist website’, Curriculum Journal, 11: 1, 87 — 99
- Karen M. Douglas, Craig Mcgarty, Ana-Maria Bliuc and Girish Lala (2005) ‘Understanding Cyberhate: Social Competition and Social Creativity in Online White Supremacist Groups’, Social Science Computer Review 2005; 23; 68, online version 7 June 2010.
- Mary Madden & Aaron Smith, Pew Internet and American Life project for Reputation Management and SocialMedia May 2010, ‘How people monitor and maintain their identity through research and social media’, online version 2 June 2010.
- Safe schools website, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations
- Further information is available from the research section of the ACMA website.
Research topics include:
– Australia in the Digital Economy: research report series
– Click and connect: Young Australian’s use of online social media
– Developments in internet filtering technologies and other measures for promoting online safety
– Media and Communications in Australian Families 2007
– Media and Communications in Australian families series of short reports